Solution Phase 3: 350 PPPM
Decreasing the Overall Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide
To decrease the overall atmospheric concentration of CO2 down to the environmentally and biologically safe level of 350 ppm, the same processes used during the previous phases will continue to be implemented, only on a greater scale. In order to the sequester enough CO2 in this fifty year period to return the atmospheric concentrations to 350 ppm by 2110, 49 Gt of CO2 will be sequestered each year. Each year, at full capacity, 13.73 Gt of CO2 will be sequestered in saline aquifer sequestration ; in situ mineral CO2 sequestration will sequester 4.72 Gt a year and enhanced oil recovery will sequester 4.23 Gt a year.
By this time, 2060, international policies and the international cap-and-trade system will be strict enough that emitting large amounts of CO2 will not be economically viable. Most energy will be produced using alternative or renewable energy technologies with emphasis on renewable energy generation. Those fossil-fuel plants still in operation will employ point source capture (pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel combustion capture, post-combustion capture) technologies to eliminate CO2 emissions. Increased industrial efficiency and decreased wasteful consumption by the individual and corporate consumer would have helped stabilize and then zero emissions. The required research, development, and testing and necessary infrastructure essential for large-scale carbon capture, pipeline transportation, and sequestration operations will all be complete by this stage. Carbon will be captured at point sources and air capture plants and then transported via pipelines to the nearest site for sequestration. The primary methods of sequestration will continue to be saline aquifers, seabed, and in situ mineral sequestration.